To find out the definition of specific abbreviations and words, please click on the starting letter of the word below.

 

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2 Gear: A product that offers two separate speed ranges.  For example in a drill the High range provides for a higher rpm range suitable for drilling, whilst the low range is ideal for high torque applications such as screwdriving into dense material.

2 Stroke Oil: Type of oil which needs to be added to the petrol for use on a 2 stroke petrol motor.

2 Stroke Fuel Mix:
Expressed as a ration ie 50:1 (50 to 1) means 50 parts of petrol, 1 part 2 stroke oil. Eg 1 litre of petrol (1000 ml) to 20mls of 2 stroke oil.  Other common mixtures, but not restricted to,  40:1,   30:1  25:1

4 Stroke oil: Type of oil which needs to be added to the sump of a 4 stroke petrol motor.

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A

Abrasive Wheel: A rotating accessory to grind, cut or remove stock from various materials such as metal or concrete.

AC: Alternating Current.
They type of power which normally is supplied from a wall outlet

AC Motor:
An electric motor that operates on “alternating current”- the kind of power found in a household outlet.

Aluminium Construction:
offers increased strength and durability

Amperage:
A measure of the flow of electric current.  If you think in terms of water through a hose, amperage would be a measure of water volume flowing through the hose.  As it applies to electric powertools “Rated Amperage” is how many amps the tool uses.

Anti-Kickback Device:
A device incorporated into some powertools intended to minimise the effects of kickback (see kickback).

AVR:
Automatic Voltage Regulator.  An electronic module used to regulate the input voltage to the rotor on a generator to maintain a constant voltage output

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B

Bench Grinder: A motor powering one or two grinding wheels; used for sharpening tools and shaping metal objects.

Bevel cut:
A bevel cut made on a mitre saw is made by cutting across the grain of the workpiece with the blade angled to the fence and mitre table. The mitre table is set at the zero degree position and the blade set at an angle between 0°and 45°.

Biscuit:
Thin strip of wood, typically beech, that is glued into a slot in two pieces of stock to hold them together.

Biscuit Cutter:
Commonly referred to as a Plate Joiner or Biscuit Cutter.  This powertool is used to cut slots in boards to accommodate biscuits.

Biscuit Joiner:
Another name for a Plate Joiner or biscuit Cutter.  This powertool is used to cut slots in boards to accommodate biscuits.

BPM:
Beats Per Minute. A measure of the frequency of the hammering action of a hammer drill or Rotary Hammer Drill.

Bump Feed:
A method to feed out cutting line on a line trimmer. Speed up the cutting head and bump (hit) the head on the ground and a pre determined length of line is feed out.

Butt Joint:
Methos of joinery where the two pieces of stock are simply butted together and held with any combination of glue, nails or screws.

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C

Cc’s - Engine displacement is the volume  swept by all the pistons inside the cylinders of an internal combustion engine

Carbide:
A hard material made of compacted binary compounds of carbon and heavy metals, used, used to make tools that cut metal.


Carbon Brushes: A part of a motor which conducts current between stationary wires and moving parts.

Carburettor: A device on the intake of a petrol motor to supply to the motor the correct amount of fuel and air, at the correct ratio.

Central height adjust
: This a single lever that operates all the wheels at the same time to give even elevation of the lawnmower deck.

CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute.  A measure of the usage of air from an air compressor.  The higher this number is on a tool, the more frequently the compressor will need to run to keep the tool going.

Chain bar: The thin bar on a chain saw which guides and supports the cutting chain.

Chain Sprocket: The main chain drive which drives the chain around the bar on a chain saw

Chisel: A wood chisel is used for cleanly paring out small bits of stock.

Chisel point:
A point on staples that makes the legs sink in straight as a staple is driven into material.

Choke: A device to change the ratio of fuel and air into a petrol motor. Used to assist in initial starting of a petrol motor.

Chuck:
The part of the drill which holds bits into place.  They come in 2 types: Keyless; a chuck which does not require a tool to change the bits, and Keyed; a chuck which does require a tool to change the bit.

Circular Saw:
A handheld powertool used for ripping and cross-cutting hardwoods, softwoods and non-wood materials such as steel, plastic, and concrete.

Clamp: A restraining device used to hold a workpiece in place while you work.

Claw Hammer:
The most basic tool in woodworking; used for driving and removing nails from stock.

Clipped Head: Nails collated in 28 degree or 30-33 degree strips which have a notch in the head that allows for each individual nail to be driven efficiently, despite the angle and tightness of the collation.  This notch makes little practical differences in holding power.

Clutch: A device to engage and disengage the drive from a motor or gear box. Clutch can be manually operated or speed activated or in some cases pressure activated.

Collated: Fasteners which are bound together for use in automatic firing mechanisms.  All staples are collated, but only specific nails and screws are collated.

Compound Mitre cut: A compound mitre cut using a mitre saw involves using a mitre angle and a bevel angle at the same time. It is used in making picture frames, to cut mouldings, making boxes with sloping sides and for roof framing.

Compound Mitre Saw:
A table mounted saw that allows for cross-cutting precise compound angles on workpieces (soft or hardwoods).

CREE:
Cree is leading the LED lighting revolution and making energy-wasting traditional lighting technologies obsolete through the use of energy-efficient, environmentally friendly LED lighting. Cree is a market-leading innovator of lighting-class LEDs, LED lighting, and semiconductor solutions for wireless and power applications.

Cross cut:
A crosscut using a mitre saw is made by cutting across the grain of the workpiece. A 90º crosscut is made with the mitre table set at 0°.  Mitre crosscuts are made with the table set at some angle other than zero.

Crown: The crown of a staple is the top portion which connects the legs.  This piece is typically what you can see once the staple has been fastened.

Current:
The flow of electrons through a conductor.  Measure in Amperes.

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D

Dado: A groove cut into a piece of wood to hold another piece of wood.  Commonly used in cabinetry to hold a shelf on the shelf standard.

DC:
Direct Current.  Is one that flows always in the same direction.  It is the type of electrical power normally supplied by batteries or generators.

Direct Current Motor:
When power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energizes the next winding. Thus giving us rotation.

Displaced:
Displaced is the measure of cubic feet per minute produced by an air compressor working in a perfect environment at 100% efficiency.

Divergent:
A point on staples that makes the legs spread outwards as the staple is driven into a material.

Double Bevel:
(in relation to Mitre Saws) The saw is able to tilt/bevel to both the left and right hand side to various angles.  This enables the user to adjust the bevel angle of the saw rather than moving the workpiece around to suit the saw.

Double-Insulated:
A form of electrical protection featuring two separate insulation systems to help protect against electrical shock from internal malfunctions.  DI tools have no provisions for grounding (no third grounding prong) and are equipped with a polarized two prong.

Drill:
A handheld powertool used for drilling holes or attaching screws.  Uses bits to create holes of different sizes.

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E


Ear Muffs:
A form of hearing protection where a large headphone like device covers the ears to keep out loud noises.

Ear Protection:
Devices such as ear plugs or Ear Muffs that reduce the intensity of the noise entering your ear.  Ear protection will carry a NIOSH Noise reduction rating, or “NRR”, which indicates how much the noise level you can experience is reduced (in decibels).

Electric Power:
Is the rate of doing electrical work.  This unit is the watt or kilowatt.  A kilowatt is 1,000 watts. 

Extension Cord:
An electric cord used between AC powered tools (or any appliance etc) and outlets to extend the range of the tool.  The more amperage your tool uses, and the longer the distance, the larger the size of the wire needed in your extension cord (larger wire = smaller gauge)

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F


Ear Muffs:
A form of hearing protection where a large headphone like device covers the ears to keep out loud noises.

Ear Protection:
Devices such as ear plugs or Ear Muffs that reduce the intensity of the noise entering your ear.  Ear protection will carry a NIOSH Noise reduction rating, or “NRR”, which indicates how much the noise level you can experience is reduced (in decibels).

Electric Power:
Is the rate of doing electrical work.  This unit is the watt or kilowatt.  A kilowatt is 1,000 watts. 

Extension Cord:
An electric cord used between AC powered tools (or any appliance etc) and outlets to extend the range of the tool.  The more amperage your tool uses, and the longer the distance, the larger the size of the wire needed in your extension cord (larger wire = smaller gauge)

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G

Generators (Portable type): Portable Type Generators provide an alternate electrical power supply for recreation purposes (camping) , for job sites where electrical power is not available, or where power outages leave house holds or worksites without electrical power. Portable generators operate on a internal combustion engine and Must only be used in the open.
Features vary from model to model.
909 generators have a full range of2 stroke Generators, 4 stroke generators and inverter generators.
909 Portable generators supply AVR 240V outputs, 12Volt DC appliance outputs, 12Volt Battery charging facilities, plus a full range of inverter generators for use on electronic equipment.

Governor:
A device on a motor to control the speed of the motor to a pre determined speed range.

Grit:
The number of abrasive particles found per square inch of sandpaper.  This term is used to differentiate between coarse and fine grades of sandpaper.

Grounded:
Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

GPO:
General Power Outlet (ie 240V 3 pin plug socket)

Guard:
Protective device that forms a barrier between a hazardous object such as a blade, wheel or a cutter, and the operator.

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H

Hammer: One of the most basic tools in woodworking, used for driving and removing nails from stock.  See also claw hammer.

Hammer Action:
When hammer function is activated it has the capability to drill holes and drive screws in brick, concrete and other masonry materials when using drill bit designed for such application.

Hardwood:
An assortment of woods, usually harvested from deciduous trees, that are used in woodworking.  Most fine furniture is made from some form of hardwood such as oak, maple, walnut, mahogany or cherry.

Hearing protection:
Devices such as ear muffs or ear plugs that protect your hearing when implemented properly while using loud powertools.

HID:
High Intensity Discharge.  Is a type of globe which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.

Horsepower (HP):
A measure of power that is the amount of work done in a given time.  In terms of electric power, 1HP = 746 Watts. 

HSS:
High Speed Steel. Typical drill bits are constructed from this material.

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I

Induction Motor: An AC motor which has no brushes, and is typically larger, heavier, slower, and used in benchtop and stationary equipment.  Examples include Table Saws, Planers, Band Saws and Jointers.

Inversion stand:
An inversion stand is an attachment attached to a Belt Sanders enabling the tool to be bench mounted both vertically and horizontally in a fixed position. 

Inverter:
An inverter takes DC power from a 12 Volt battery and converts it to household AC power.

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J

Jigsaw: Handheld powertool useful for making curved cuts on thin materials such as plywood and particle board.

Joule:
A joule is a measurement of electrical energy. 1 joule is equal to 1 watt of power for 1 second of time (watts x time = joules)

Jump starters:
Jump Starters (Portable) are a device that contain their own power source sufficient to assist in the starting of vehicles with a flat battery. The products can also be fitted with other additional features like air compressors, lights etc.
909 jumpstarters are fitted with jump staring facilities, plus a light and 12V Dc accessory output.
Within the 909 range, other features include a 240V inverter, USB Power outlets.
909 have also introduced a light weight Lithium model which is compact and light weight

Junction box:
A metal or plastic box used to enclose splice connections.

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K

Kerf: Kerf relates to the width of a saw cut.  The kerf is typically created by teeth that protrude slightly wider than the edge of the blade, alternating each side every other tooth.

Keyless Chuck:
A drill chuck that requires no tools to loosen or tighten, and remove and replace drill bits.

Key Start:
A feature which offers the option of electrically starting a motor. Generally found in Lawn Mowers and Generators.

Kickback:
Sudden and unintended movement of the tool or workpiece.  It is typically caused by binding or pinching of the workpiece.

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L

Laser: Lasers produce a single beam of light. Lasers used in 909 powertools only produce a maximum output of 1mV operating in Class 2. In other words they are low powered and generally only suitable in lower light conditions such as undercover or indoors. Lasers do not normally present an optical hazard, although staring at the beam may cause flash blindness.

LED:
Light Emitting Diode. Generally found in Torches, Lanterns and other lighting products.

Levels:
A level is used to determine whether an object is level (perfectly horizontal) or plumb (perfectly vertical).  There are many types of levels, but only full length and torpedo levels are predominantly used in woodworking.

Linear Foot:
The same as one foot of distance, equal to 12 inches.  The term “linear foot” is sometimes used to avoid any confusion with the term “square foot”.

Lithium-Ion:
A type of rechargeable Battery technology.  Lithium-Ion batteries feature high voltage, high energy density and low self-discharge. They are lightweight and compact and have high energy efficiency. Lithium-Ion batteries achieve rapid charging and a long life cycle through the combination of the Lithium-Ion battery technology and battery recharging components.

Lock-on button:
The lock on button on various powertools enables you to lock into the on position so that you are not required to keep your finger constantly on the on switch to reduce user fatigue.


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M

Magazine: The part of the nailer, stapler, or screw gun which holds the fasteners and helps direct them into firing position.

Magnesium:
Is the lightest of the structural metals, 75% lighter than steel, 50% lighter than titanium and 32% lighter than aluminium. It is the lightest engineering metal (excluding exotic materials such as beryllium and lithium).

Mains outlet:
A point on a wiring system at which current is taken to supply electrical devices.  A receptacle is placed in an outlet.  A light is made to an outlet.

Maximum Speed:
The highest speed the product should reach and should not be exceeded. Often used to indicate a safe working speed, ie in the case of a grinding wheel.

Milliamps:
To convert amps to Milliamps multiply by 1,000 (0.55 Amps = 55 Milliamps)

Mitre Saw:
A table mounted benchtop saw that allows for cross-cutting precise compound angles on workpieces (soft or hardwoods).

Mitre Table locks:
Mitre table locks are used to lock the table at the desired mitre angle.  These are generally found at 0°, 15°, 22.5°, 30° and 45°.

Mortise:
A groove cut in one piece of stock to accommodate a tenon.  Mortise & Tenon joinery is a very common method of connecting two pieces of wood.

Mortise & Tenon joint:
Method of joinery where a pin (tenon) cut from the edge of a piece of stock is glued into a slot (mortise)


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N

Ni-Cad: Nickel Cadmium.  The oldest of the rechargeable technologies used in batteries.  It is also the quickest to lose the charge or “memory” of a battery as it is used over time before the battery is completely drained.

Ni-MH:
Nickel Metal Hydride.  Another type of rechargeable battery technology.  It also loses charge or “memory” as it is used over time before the battery is completely drained.

Nm:
Newton Meter. A unit of torque.  One newton metre is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one newton applied perpendicularly to a moment arm which is one metre long

No Load Speed:
Speed measured when the tool is operating at the rated voltage but not engaged in work.  It is usually listed on the tool rating label.

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O

Ohm: The unit of measurement for electrical resistance.  R= R/I

Ohms Law:
E=IR, or I=E/R, or R=E/I.  E = voltage, I = current, and R = resistance.

OHV:
An overhead valve engine, also informally called pushrod engine, is a type of piston engine that places the camshaft within the cylinder block.

OPM:
Oscillations Per Minute.  A measure of how many times an item vibrates in 1 minute.

Overreaching:
Extending your body with a tool or a workpiece in hand such that a loss of balance is likely.  For example: reaching over the blade or cutter area; or reaching from scaffolding to drive in a screw.

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P

Pancake: A type of air compressor tank which is flat and round, resembling the shape of a pancake.

Parallel Circuit: Parallel circuits are those in which the components are so arranged that the current divides between them.  In parallel circuits the voltage remains the same but the current may vary.  The circuits in your home are wired in parallel.

Parallel fence: A parallel fence, or parallel guide is an attachment that allows you to make parallel cuts on your material all at the same width.

Pendulum Action:
Refers to the cutting action (generally in Jigsaws) where the blade orbits in a back/forth motion whilst moving up/down.

Plate Joiner:
Also known as a biscuit Cutter, this powertool is designed to cut slots in boards to accommodate biscuits (thin strips of wood designed to join 2 boards together)

Plug Pack Charger: Small charger or adaptor which plugs directly into a GPO. The connecting pins are moulded into the charger or adaptor housing.

Plunge Router:
A powertool for cutting profiles on edges of stock, of which the bit can be lowered into the wood while cutting.

Power Source: A control device that energizes your tool in the “on” position and de-energizes the tool in the “off” position.

PSI: Pounds per Square Inch.  A measure of the air pressure generated by an air compressor.  Also used in determining the strength of hoses.  Always make sure the compressor is set below the maximum operating pressure of any tools attached to it.

PSIG: Pounds per Square Inch Gauge.  A measure of the air pressure generated by an air compressor.  Also used in determining the strength of hoses.  Always make sure the compressor is set below the maximum operating pressure of any tool attached to it.

Push-block/Push Stick:
A suitably shaped and designed hand held device used to push the workpiece into and past cutting edges on stationary powertools.

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R

Rabbet: A groove cut into the side of a board that is against one edge.  Differs from a dado based on its location in the board.

Random Orbital Sanders:
A versatile power sander of which the motion is random, so that sanding marks on the finish are reduced.

Rated Speed:
Speed measured when the tool is operating at the rated voltage and loaded to work at the rated load current.

Recoil start -
(also called manual start, pull start, or zip start) refers to a method of starting an internal combustion system, usually to that of small machines, such as lawn mowers and chainsaws.

Rectifier:
An electronic module to convert AC to DC.

Regulator:
An electronic device to regulate and maintain an output of Voltage or current or both.

Removable brush access:
Allows carbon brushes to be replaced on your powertool to prolong the life of your tool.

Resistor:
An object having resistance.  A resistor is a conductor inserted into a circuit to introduce resistance.

Respiratory Protection:
A device placed on your face used to filter the air you breathe.  Available in various styles including disposable face masks, half face respirators, and full face respirators.

Router:
A Rotary powertool used for shaping the edges or creating grooves in woods.

RPM:
Revolutions Per Minute.  A measure of the speed of rotation of a motor.

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S

Safety neon light: The Safety Neon light on a powertool tells you when mains power is available to the tool and is primarily a safety feature for the user.

SDS:
SDS, SDS Plus®, or SDS MAX are a system which enables easy and safe bit replacement for SDS drill bits. Note. The SDS Plus bit needs to be inserted in a specific way to ensure it locks into the chuck.

Self priming:
The engine does not have a priming bulb, itself primes the engine adds petrol to the engine as the recoil starter is pulled.

Series Circuit:
A series circuit is one which all components are connected in tandem.  The current at every point of a series circuit stays the same.  In series circuits the current remains the same but the voltage drops may vary.

Single Phase:
A single output which may be centre tapped for dual voltage levels.

Soft Start:
Soft start is a function of a motor (generally found in Angle Grinders) that provide for increased safety and control by slowly starting the motor and gently building to full speed.

Spark plug:
is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed fuels.

Spindle Lock:
A feature now seen on many cordless drills where the spindle is automatically locked when the keyless chuck is being tightened but rotates freely when driven by the gear box.

SPM:
Stroked Per Minute:  A measure of the speed of sawing action for a jigsaw or reciprocating Saw.

Surge:
A short duration high voltage condition.  May last for several cycles.

Synthetic:
A man made material.  Oils of this type typically have less wear than conventional oil.

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T

TCT: Tungsten Carbide Tipped.  A material of which blades can be made of.

Three Phase:
Three separate outputs from a single source with a phase differential of 120 electrical degrees between any 2 adjacent voltages or currents.

Three Phase Motors:
These motors are used for both small and heavy duty applications.  They have three windings and a rotor that run on alternating current.  When the A.C is applied it magnetises to the windings thus causing the rotor to turn.

Throttle lever:
this is the lever on the handle bar, that dictates the speed of the blade rotation.

Tool Free Guard:
(as found on angle grinders) The guard does not require any tools to adjust to be able to replace the disc.

Torque:
The measure of the turning or twisting power, measures in Nm.

Transformer:
The transferring of electrical energy from one coil to another by means of an alternating magnetic field.  Typically these convert a higher voltage to a lower one (eg 240V to 12V)

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U

Universal Motor: An AC or DC brush-type motor that is small, light and fast.  Typically found in battery and corded handheld powertools, and some stationary equipment.

USB Power/Port:
a specifically designed port to enable products with USB adaptors to used in conjunction with the tool.  909 offer this feature on Generators and Automotive products.

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V

Variable Speed: Most powertools will offer this feature.  Variable Speed allows you to adjust the suit of the speed, usually by a dial, to suit the task at hand. (Usually found in Jigsaws, some angle grinders etc)

Volt/Amps:
Amps is the term used to describe the flow of current.  Volts are the electrical pressure applied to a circuit to make the current flow.  The formula for power or watts is Volts x Amps.  Volt Amps would be Watts.

Voltage:
The electrical potential difference measured between two conductors such as the “hot” and “neutral” for AC power supply or the potential difference between the + and the – poles of the DC supply. 

Volts:
A unit that measures the amount of electrical pressure. E = IR

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W

Wattage (W): A measure of power; that is the amount of work done in a given time.  If you think in terms of water through a hose, wattage is the measure of how much pressure is required to push the volume of water delivered in a period of time.

Watts: A unit that measures the amount of electrical power. P = EI.



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